By , the settlement had more than doubled, to population of 19, Its territory was about square miles. The settlement had wells. In , serfs of the factory obtained their liberty with the Emancipation Manifesto and gained self-government.
Izhevsky Zavod was divided into two volosts: Nagornaya Volost and Zarechnaya Volost, or Zareka. Each volost had its board of administration and consisted of rural groups. Rural circles were headed by a starosta , selected in the gathering. There were seven rural societies in Nagornaya Volost; Zarechnaya Volost consisted of four.
Administrations of volosts reported to the Board of Sarapul Zemstvo. They were led by volost starshinas , elected for three years. Volost administrations were in charge of doing duty and paying taxess. They issued passports, managed improvement of territory [ clarification needed ] and other local affairs. Administrative and police oversight was carried out by the factory administration. Besides the administration delivered documents of title to land and house. The ponds, pastures and hayfields were turned over to the armorers and artisans.
The abolition of serfdom aggravated wealth inequalities between the inhabitants of Izhevsky Zavod. Well-to-do sections of population included the factory management, skilled armorers and artisans, administrative professionals, officials, clergy and merchants. Such stratification had an influence on view of the settlement.
Working people were driven out of Nagornaya Part and settled in boggy Zareka. At that time, Koltoma , another working-class locality, grew.
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In the early s, there were about twenty private stone buildings in Izhevsky Zavod. In Zarechnaya Part all houses were made of wood. Civic life depended on government contract work. In the years of war or army re-equipment, the orders grew, and so did the workforce and labour earnings. After the government orders were filled and wages were cut, most workmen left the arms factory and the settlement fell into decay until the next government contract. In , the steel works was founded in Izhevsky Zavod.
In , the arms factory and the steel works passed to the state. In the s, trade blossomed in Izhevsky Zavod. It was profitable to deal in spirits. There were three vodka distilleries, four wine warehouses, three wine cellars, and about fifty taverns in This year Ivan Bodalev opened his brewery on the bank of the reservoir. At the turn of the 19th century there were four temples in Izhevsky Zavod.
Michael's Cathedral was built between and Both synagogues were closed in by the Soviet authorities. Two days later the factory administration resigned and was replaced with elected officials. By the middle of September of the same year, Bolsheviks took under control both the council and the council's influential newspaper.
The former leaders of the council were arrested in June , contributing to the beginning of an uprising against Bolshevik rule. The Soviet period saw significant growth in the size and importance of Izhevsk. In , the city became the administrative center of Votsk Autonomous Oblast , a precursor to the Udmurt Republic. The first tramline was opened in It was 5 kilometres long.
It consolidated the capital status of Izhevsk. In the autumn of several defense-related plants evacuated to Izhevsk. In June, , Izhevsk Mechanical Plant was founded. World War II had a profound effect on the city; much of the industrial infrastructure evacuated from the western regions of the Soviet Union was relocated to the city.
Elements of the evacuated enterprises were used to create the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant , which remains an important manufacturer of military components. Military industry remained the core of the local economy after the war, so Izhvesk was designated a closed city , inaccessible to foreigners. The city's Izhmash factory began manufacturing the AK automatic rifle in , and continues to produce modern variants of the design to this day. The rifle's designer, Mikhail Kalashnikov lived in Izhevsk until his death in In , Izhmash began manufacturing the Izh brand of automobiles.
In , the city was renamed Ustinov ; in honor of former minister of defense Dmitry Ustinov. Izhevsk weathered the post-Soviet years reasonably well, carried through by the continued demand for its military products. The city remains an important industrial and military center of the country, referred to as the "Armory of Russia", a title it shares with the city of Tula. Izhevsk is the capital of the republic. According to the census, the capital of Udmurtia is home to more than ethnicities. More than two-thirds of residents are Russians Other groups include Udmurts Izhevsk was one of the homes of the Udmurt Jews.
Izhevsk is the most important economic center of the Udmurt Republic, with the majority of financial and industrial activity concentrated in the city. Military industry remains the backbone of the local economy, with a number of enterprises operating in the city. By far the most important of these is Izhmash , which produces small arms and assault rifles popular both in Russia and abroad.
The plant also produces motorcycles and automobiles under IZH brandname. Izhevsk is the scientific and cultural center of the Udmurt Republic. Early on, the state took a leading role in childcare and education. A wide variety of technical colleges and two-year professional schools award associate degrees, most notably in medical assistance, performing arts and teaching.
The Ural department of the Russian Scientific Academy is represented in Izhevsk by several institutions, specializing in physics, applied mechanics and technical sciences, and economics, and the Institute of History, Language and Literature of Udmurtia does the same. Four out of five higher education institutes in the Udmurt Republic are located in Izhevsk: Each of these educational institutions admits foreign students.
Udmurt State University celebrated its 75th anniversary in It is the oldest educational institution in the Udmurt Republic. Some 28, students are currently studying at the University, which offers 86 different majors.
The university has thirteen departments and seven institutes. Out of 1, faculty members hold Doctor of Science Dr. UdSU graduate school offers 11 attestation committees qualified to award Cand. Izhevsk is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and European Commission Intercultural cities programme. Its expositions tell about Izhevsk as one of the most important center of Russian arms production. The main person of the museum narration is Mikhail Kalashnikov. The museum and exhibition complex holds the permanent exposition devoted to this legendary Russian armourer.
There are temporary expositions in addition to the permanent exposition launched in The Museum has the demonstration hall, including the shooting gallery where different models of historical and contemporary arms are presented, and the pneumatic shooting gallery. It was founded in on the premises of the former Russian settlement Ilyinka.
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Total area of the culture preserve is about 40 hectares. It divided into 5 exhibition parts: Residents of Izhevsk have liked circus throughout the history of the city. In olden days the settlement was visited by vagrant performers — skomorokhs with mountain bears, strongmans and fakirs. Since the turn of the 19th century, shows took places in booths — temporary structures with benches for the rich and standing rooms for the poor. The first Izhevsk circus was built by Aleksandr Koromyslov in It had existed till the Civil War began. On 21 September , the Kolart Circus was opened.
It was made of wood and seated 1, spectators. In , at the height of The Great Patriotic War , the stone circus building was erected in the Kolart's place. It was designed by P. Popov after the pattern of Ciniselli Circus in Saint Petersburg. On 29 November , the wounded soldiers saw the first show there.
The Circus seated 1, spectators and was considered one of the best ones in the Soviet Union. On 29 December , the building was razed. The project was designed by Moscow architect Mikhail Vesnin. In September , first formers from the whole of Udmurtia saw the show at the new circus. In the judgment of specialists, the contemporary building of the Circus is one of the best in Russia.
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It seats 1, spectators like the predecessor and have current technologies and high-performance audio and light equipment. The Circus has its own hotel called the Arena Hotel. Circus stars come to Izhevsk from every corner of the globe. Members of leading world's circus art festivals and circus managers and producers from the United States , Germany , Italy , France and other countries enter into the festival jury. In the season the team finished the regular season 19th and did not qualified for the playoffs. In the season the team finished 5th in the zone Ural-Povolzhye.
The women's handball team Universitet plays in Russian Superleague. The sledge hockey team Udmurtia is the twice champion of Russia , In the post-Soviet period Izhevsk became known as home to a vibrant art and music scene. Izhevsk is sometimes referred to as "the capital of Russian electronic music".
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Currently the music scene continues to evolve creating new talents such as Anna Krab calling itself the Electronic Queen of Udmurtia and Distract-a-bee with a dick-logo tending to release an album every week. Some of the most famous institutions include the Italmas, an Udmurt folk theater and dance company, and the local circus. In —, a beautiful new auditorium was built in the center of town to serve as a permanent home for the city circus.
Today circus acts from Izhevsk and other Russian and European cities entertain visitors at the Izhevsk Circus.